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Types of Logical Fallacies

Logic is a trait that seems to be in short supply these days, with the advent and barrage of deceptive online and offline mass marketing and mass propaganda machineries. Here’s how to arm yourself with an invulnerable logical mind and the know-how to spot charlatans and their fallacious weapons of mass deception.

Let’s look at the different types of logical fallacies people use to trick you.

Distraction by attempting to compare two things that are truly incomparable but made to seem as if they were.

Generalization based on too little or irrelevant “evidence”. Jumping to conclusions by applying one example onto the general whole. Making a conclusive statement as if it were a valid verifiable fact when in truth, insufficient, inaccurate and irrelevant information had been collected to form its basis.

False Causality  
False causality is when someone says that one thing causes another when in fact the two are not connected in any way at all. Usually, it is just that it so happens that one thing occurs after the other in sequence, creating the illusion that the earlier thing is the cause that results in the later thing.

Judging Based on Personality
Judging the validity of the message based on the personality of the one bearing it and not the intrinsic quality or usefulness of the message itself.

Playing to Emotions
Playing to the emotions to swerve opinions on a matter. Common examples include highlighting plights of unfortunate victims, potential consequences to the family or changes in the environment in order to persuade people to do things.

Manufacture Truth Through Authority
Abusing authority to manufacture a “truth”. Using an authority from an entirely different field to support a claim unrelated to his field of expertise. For example, Cardi B commenting on the economic policies of China.

Misleading Illustration of Consequences.
Suggesting that all the results of an action will be entirely positive or negative when in fact there are both elements and risks of positive and negative effects available.